Primary obstacle to establishing a more robust international institution to fight climate change can be found in both domestic and international field. Domestically, older generations who have more powerful political influence, but will not be alive when climate changes become detrimental, does not feel the need to pay the price for it. Internationally, countries does not want to risk their well-being and only follow their interest of economic growth instead of having a sustainable growth. Even though effective system of cooperation can be created by addressing the problem in both domestic and international roam, international effort should be addressed first setting the paths for individual countries and collective international community, so that each countries can take care of their doproblems involving reduction of emission.
International Institutions are built to foster cooperation but in Kyoto Protocol, it failed to reach its goal. The role of powerful countries is important in International Institutions because instead of many developing countries which concern more about their own economic growth, developing countries have money and power to create, aid and enforce treaties, organizations, and behavioral norms. In Kyoto, top six emitters, , U.S., EU, China, Russia, Japan, EU and India, including handful of the world’s most powerful countries have failed to show leadership in reducing greenhouse gas emission. U.S., the world’s largest emitter is not even a member of the Kyoto Protocol treaty. EU and Japan has joined the treaty and they are making some significant effort, but is it nowhere close to the global trajectory of CO2 emissions. China and India are a member of the treaty but its emission is continuing to increase and they protest the limits on their emission constantly. Russia is a member only because the treaty condones inaction and because they can sell leftover emission credits. This attitudes seems very irresponsible, especially when more developed countries like U.S., Japan, and EU caused this climate change in the process of their development. Fortunately, despite the failure of Kyoto Protocol, at the 2009 Copenhagen Climate Conference, voluntary pledges to cut green house gas emissions. The Copenhagen Climate Conference gained more popularity and participation because it gave countries more flexibility. Different countries have different types of industry so allowing different plans that fits the country the best helped countries feel reduction of emission more achievable. For example, instead of reducing emission in general, China decided to scale down its hydrofluorocarbons, which is also know as super-greenhouse gases and use more clean sources of energy than fossil fuels. Another great success that 2009 Copenhagen Climate Conference achieved is bringing developing countries into the roam. Throughout 2000s, developing countries argued that it is not fair to place same standard on them with industrialized countries because they did not get a chance to be industrialized while industrialized countries caused global warming as they are being industrialized. For this reason, developing countries have not been very cooperative in climate change issues. However, developing countries have made notable progress through enhancing the utility of global, climate-related “measurable, reportable, and verifiable(MRVs)” by requiring greater transparency. Developing countries have to report their emissions biennually and the ‘peer pressure’ systemisalso helpful as each country have to check on one other country for their transparent report. This represents collective effort of international field in matters of climate change. Climate change is an inevitable matter that all countries have to fave because we live together in earth. Even though past treaties was not successful in fostering cooperation, countries learned from its past and found more fitting ways to reduce emissions. Through negotiations, the goals to solve climate change became more realistic and successful changes toward better cooperation is being held.