All posts by Paul Gee Sung Park

Climate Change: An Incentive Problem

     According to the Washington Post’s article written by Joshua Tucker, the primary impediment to establishing a more rigid international institution to combat climate change is neither a domestic or an international problem, but an incentive problem. Indeed, science has been pointing out to the looming hazards of climate change for some time. According to the United States Environmental Protection Agency, from 1900 to 2008, emissions of carbon dioxide from fossil fuels have increased alarmingly by over 16 times. Tucker mentions that according to a report from the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, it is not too late to change our gloomy future: if we act drastically within the next decades and cut emission levels we can still avoid the damages of climate change. However, Tucker is less hopeful that the world will choose to do so. Continue reading Climate Change: An Incentive Problem

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World Trade Organization, A Still Relevant Factor in the International System

The World Trade Organization is the only international trade organization at present. Since its creation in 1995 it has brought positive effects on international trade by providing surveillance on state trade-related practices and by providing grounds for diplomatic negotiations. It is also the defender of important principles of trade liberalization, including the Most-favored Treatment and National Treatment. Critics, however, point out to the failure of the Doha Round to reach any meaningful agreement as evidence to the decline of the World Trade Organization. However, recent successes of the WTO seem to indicate otherwise. Continue reading World Trade Organization, A Still Relevant Factor in the International System

Overestimation on Factors to UNHCR Mandate Shift

According to Betts, pressure for an international organization to change may not only come from the organization’s vertical relationships with states, but also from its horizontal relationships with other organizations. In the case of the Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR), Betts argues that changes in the external and the internal institutional environment were major forces that caused the expansion of the UNHCR mandate. However, Betts overestimates the effects of these forces. Continue reading Overestimation on Factors to UNHCR Mandate Shift

Doubts on Generalizations on the Scope of State Control–Paul Gee Sung Park

      Krasner denounces the idea that the importance of sovereignty to national states has been in the decline. He argues that the practice of sovereignty has been adapting to emerging challenges. In fact, he argues that those challenges that are threatening sovereignty are not new at all. One of the challenges, globalization, Krasner argues, has actually strengthened state control and has had the effect of changing the scope of sovereignty, not the political structure itself. Continue reading Doubts on Generalizations on the Scope of State Control–Paul Gee Sung Park